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Gua Sha (Pre-Graston) Technique

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Inside Gua Sha (Pre-Graston) IASTM Soft Tissue Technique


Research Reports on Graston Technique®

Research on the Graston Technique® is ongoing. The following studies were conducted using the GASTM* Protocol by Graston Technique® trained clinicians:

  1. Davidson CJ, Ganion L, Gehlsen G, Roepke J, Verhoestra B, Sevier TL: Morphologic and functional changes in rat achilles tendon following collagenase injury and GASTM. Journal of the American College of Sports Medicine 27(5) 1995.

    This study examined morphologic changes and functional changes in the Achilles tendon of rats following collagenase injury and subsequent intervention with the Graston Technique® (GASTM). Animals were randomly assigned to one of four groups (five rats per group): (1.) control; (2.) tendinitis; (3.) tendinitis plus GASTM; and (4.) GASTM alone.

    The Achilles tendons were harvested six weeks after injury. Gait analysis was performed using a rat treadmill, high-speed film and computer digitalization. Results indicated a significant therapeutic effect of the GASTM for stride length, stride frequency and knee range of motion (ROM). Electron microscopy found an increased number of fibroblasts in both groups treated with the Graston Technique® (GASTM) (groups 3 & 4).

  2. Sevier TL, Gehlsen GM, Wilson JK, Stover SA, and Helfst RH: Traditional physical therapy vs. Graston Technique® Augmented Soft Tissue Mobilization in treatment of lateral epicondylitis. Journal of the American College of Sports Medicine 27 (5), 1995.

    Forty patients diagnosed with lateral epicondylitis were randomly assigned to one of two groups; traditional PT protocol; phonophoresis and manual cross-friction; the Graston Technique® protocol. Both groups received identical cryotherapy, exercise and stretching programs. Pain level, mechanical finger power and grip strength were measured. There was a statistical difference between groups, in favor of the Graston Technique® protocol for the above measures.

  3. Davidson CJ, Ganion L, Gehlsen GM, Verhoestra B, Roepke JE, Sevier TL. Rat tendon morphologic and functional changes resulting from soft tissue mobilization. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 29(3):313-319, 1997.



bullet10 More Great Techniques. Feature Cover Article: The American Chiropractor,
Aug., 2003.
bulletAdding Income with Instruments. Article:Chiropractic Economics. Issue 14,
September, 2005
bulletA Growing Trend in Hand Therapy. Physical Therapy Products, April/May 2005
bulletAnderson RJ. Pitching in Stitches. Training & Conditioning. 2005; 15(3): 15-23.
bulletBoughton B, Wristoration, Alleviating the pain of carpal tunnel syndrome. BioMechanics. 2004; 11(1):20-27.
bulletChampionship Chiropractic. Article: Dynamic Chiropractic, June, 2005.
bulletChiropractic Soft-Tissue Expertise: Boon to Patients. Focus Article: JACA, Sept., 2003.
bulletDeLuccio, Justine. Instrument Assisted Soft Tissue Mobilization Utilizing Graston Technique: A Physical Therapist’s Perspective. Orthopaedic Physical Therapy Practice: 18 (3) 2006.
bulletDuffy M, Greenapple S. Graston Technique: The (non-) Cutting Edge of Treatment. Carolina SportsLink Magazine: 18, May 2004.
bulletFalvey M. Repetitive Stress Injuries: Fighting Back With The Graston Technique. Claims Magazine, 4 (5):38-46, April, 2000.
bulletFalvey M. The Promise of Tissue Remodeling. Dynamic Chiropractic: 8-9, Mar. 26, 2001.
bulletFedorczyk JA. Therapist’s Management of Elbow Tendonitis. In: Mackin EJ, Callahan AD, Skirven TM, Schneider LH, Osterman AL, Hunter JM, eds. Rehabilitation of the Hand and Upper Extremity. St. Louis: Mosby; 2002: 1271-1281.
bulletFocht D. Augmented soft tissue mobilization: A new frontier in treating soft tissue conditions. OT Practice 3(9):49-50, 1998.
bulletFowler S. Responding to Managed Care. Occupational Health & Safety 68(10):212-215, 1999.
bulletFowler S, Wilson JK, Sevier TL. Innovative approach for the treatment of cumulative trauma disorders. WORK: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation.
bulletGehlsen GM, Ganion LR, Helfst RH. Fibroblast responses to variation in soft tissue mobilization pressure. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 31(4):531-535, 1999
bulletHammer WI. Anatomic Predisposition to Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. Dynamic Chiropractic 20(3), January 28, 2002.
bulletHammer WI. Applying the Graston Technique: An Update. Dynamic Chiropractic 21(1), Jan. 1, 2003.
bulletHammer WI. Graston Technique: A Necessary Piece of the Puzzle. Dynamic Chiropractic 19(20), September 24, 2001.
bulletHammer WI. Instrument-Assisted Soft Tissue Mobilization: A Scientific and Clinical Perspective. Dynamic Chiropractic, 22 (11) 28, 47 May 20, 2004.
bulletHammer WI. Joint Preservation Is Necessary for Hands-On Chiropractic. Dynamic Chiropractic 21(25) Nov. 30, 2003.
bulletHammer WI. Knee Stiffness in a Young Athlete After Activity. Dynamic Chiropractic 19(16), July 30, 2001.
bulletHammer WI. The Pathology & Healing of Tendinosis. Dynamic Chiropractic 20(9), April 22, 2002.
bulletHammer WI. Rotator Cuff Tendinosis. D.C. Tracts 14(1):3-6, Spring 2002.
bulletHammer WI, Pfefer, MT. Treatment of a Case of Subacute Lumbar Compartment Syndrome Using the Graston Technique. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 28(3):199-204, March/April 2005.
bulletHammer WI. Weak Abdominals — Tight Lumbodorsal Fascia. Dynamic Chiropractic 19(24), November 19, 2001.
bulletHenry P, Panwitz B, Wilson JK. Treatment of a bilateral total knee replacement using Augmented Soft Tissue Mobilization. Physical Therapy Case Reports 2(1):27-30, 1999.
bulletHyde TE. Graston Technique for Athletic Injuries. D.C. Tracts 15(3): 2-4, Fall 2003.
bulletHyde TE. The Graston Technique: a new manual therapy for back pain. Spine-health website, posted: Aug. 5, 2003.
bulletKipp D, Wilson JK. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Critical Review. Critical Reviews in Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Medicine. 2001; 13(1): 67-77.
bulletMartinez R. Graston Instrument Assisted Soft Tissue Mobilization. Integrative Medicine 2 (3): 18-23, June/July 2003.
bulletNew and Innovative Techniques for Treating Runners and Multi-sport Athletes,
bulletNo tunnel of love: carpal tunnel syndrome.Focus Article: JACA 39 (7):8-16, July, 2002.
bulletPerle SM. The Leading Edge. Training & Conditioning XIII (7): 27-31, Oct., 2003. 
bulletPerle SM, Lawson G. Stimulating Healing by Initiating Inflammatory Response. Canadian Chiropractor 9 (2): 10-13, April, 2004.
bulletPloski, Mike Graston Techniqe.  BioMechanics, August 2007.
bulletRoush MB, Sevier TL, Wilson JK, Helfst RH, Gehlsen GM, Bassey AL. Anterior Knee Pain: A Clinical Comparison of Rehabilitation. Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine 10(1):22-28, 2000.
bulletSevier TL, Helfst RH, Stover SA, Wilson JK. Clinical trends on tendinitis. WORK: A Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation 14(2):123-126, 2000.
bulletSevier TL, Helfst RH, Stover SA, Wilson JK. Tendinitis: A critical review. Critical Reviews in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (Publication summer 2000).
bulletSmith S. Faster, Better, Easier Soft-Tissue Mobilization. Exploring Hand Therapy 5(1):1,3,4,9,13,18, April 2005.
bulletSnodgrass SJ, Rivett DA. Thumb Pain in Physiotherapists: Potential Risk Factors and Proposed Prevention Strategies. The Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy 10 (4): 206-217, 2002.
bulletSoft Tissue Mobilization with Instruments Makes Solid Biz Sense, Practice Owners Find. Article: Impact Magazine. September, 2005.
bulletWilson JK, Sevier TL. Common Treatment modalities utilized in treating lateral epicondylitis. Physical Therapy Reviews. (Publication summer 2000).
bulletWilson JK, Sevier TL. A Review of treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome. Disability and Rehabilitation. 2003; 25(3); 113-119.

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